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  • in reply to: Impact on Substance Use
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Offenders with substance abuse issues require treatment from certified counselors. The Carey Guides related to this topic (e.g., Substance Abuse, Meth Users, Impaired Driving) are provided to help the case manager reinforce what is learned in treatment and are designed to support, not replace, the individual’s treatment. Other Carey Guides (e.g., Problem Solving, Antisocial Thinking, Emotional Regulation, etc.) teach skills related to criminogenic needs, and we would expect to see improvements in those areas. Research conducted by the North Carolina Department of Public Safety points to the benefits of using structured worksheets such as the Carey Guides to lower recidivism rates, lessen violations, and increase offender engagement and other positive outcomes (see http://www.thecareygroup.com/structured-worksheets-yield-positive-results). However, substance abuse-specific results should be tied more closely to the treatment that clients receive.

    in reply to: Tracking the use of the Carey Guides
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    An agency is working on a plan to track the completion of the Carey Guides internally and is debating if credit should be given for each tool completed or for completion of an entire Guide. Underlying their decision is the question “Are clients expected to complete all the tools in a Carey Guide before moving on to the next Guide?” We’ve broken our response into two parts:

    1. Does one need to go from the first tool to the next tool in the Guides? The Guides are built with the idea that an individual is likely pre-contemplative or contemplative when they start.  So, the first tool gets them thinking about the issue, taking stock of their life as it relates to the topic, and—in some cases—doing a mini self-assessment. The tools then moves into skill-building and maintenance, where appropriate. That said, no one person is alike, and we understand that it may be useful to begin at a different stage in the Guide sequence, as determined by a client’s motivation level and circumstance.
    2. Is it acceptable practice to skip around from Guide to Guide with an individual client? We strongly recommend that work on criminogenic needs/skill deficits be done with the proper intensity/dosage. Skimming across topics too quickly does not create long-lasting change. “Going deep” and working on a major criminogenic need over a few months is better than addressing one issue or another for short periods of time.  The number of times one has to repeat a skill before it becomes muscle memory is significant. So, that is our caution about moving from Guide to Guide too quickly. The exception to this would be when someone has already worked on their driver (the criminogenic need that is at the root of their illegal behavior) and is now simply picking up some additional skills that would help them.  In that case, you might select various tools from various Guides and put together a customized package of tools/skills.

    This issue makes tracking Carey Guide usage a bit challenging. Agencies could track the use of each tool (generally a good idea), but it would also be important to know if case workers are skipping around the various Guides, in which case there may be a concern about dosage (“going deep”).

    in reply to: Completing all tools in a Carey Guide
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    We were asked whether clients are expected to complete all the tools in a Carey Guide before moving on to the next Guide. We’ve broken our response into two parts:

    1. Does one need to go from the first tool to the next tool in the Guides? The Guides are built with the idea that an individual is likely pre-contemplative or contemplative when they start.  So, the first tool gets them thinking about the issue, taking stock of their life as it relates to the topic, and—in some cases—doing a mini self-assessment. The tools then moves into skill-building and maintenance, where appropriate. That said, no one person is alike, and we understand that it may be useful to begin at a different stage in the Guide sequence, as determined by a client’s motivation level and circumstance.
    2. Is it acceptable practice to skip around from Guide to Guide with an individual client? We strongly recommend that work on criminogenic needs/skill deficits be done with the proper intensity/dosage. Skimming across topics too quickly does not create long-lasting change. “Going deep” and working on a major criminogenic need over a few months is better than addressing one issue or another for short periods of time.  The number of times one has to repeat a skill before it becomes muscle memory is significant. So, that is our caution about moving from Guide to Guide too quickly. The exception to this would be when someone has already worked on their driver (the criminogenic need that is at the root of their illegal behavior) and is now simply picking up some additional skills that would help them.  In that case, you might select various tools from various Guides and put together a customized package of tools/skills.
    • This topic was modified 3 months, 4 weeks ago by DebbieSmith DebbieSmith.
    in reply to: Caseload size
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    We were recently asked if caseload size has an impact on recidivism reduction and, if it does, what an optimal caseload size is for a misdemeanor probation department.

    According to the report A Multi-Site Evaluation of Reduced Probation Caseload Size in an Evidence-Based Practice Setting (https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/234596.pdf), smaller caseload sizes can lead to reduced recidivism rates but only when staff are using evidence-based practices (EBP). Researchers found little evidence that caseload size matters when staff are not using EBP.

    In terms of optimal caseload sizes, states/probation departments may offer guidance. For example, Arizona legislation dictates an average caseload size of 60 adults per probation officer (http://www.superiorcourt.maricopa.gov/AdultProbation/AdultProbationInformation/Supervision/Index.asp).

    Finally, the American Probation and Parole Association suggests the following for achieving effective probation practices (https://www.appanet.org/eweb/docs/APPA/stances/
    ip_CSPP.pdf):

    Adult Caseload Standards

    Case Type                                                                   Cases to Staff Ratio

    Intensive                                                                     20:1

    Moderate to high risk                                                 50:1

    Low risk                                                                       200:1

    Administrative                                                            No limit? 1,000?

    Juvenile Caseload Standards

    Case Type                                                                   Cases to Staff Ratio

    Intensive                                                                     15:1

    Moderate to high risk                                                 30:1

    Low risk                                                                       100:1

    Administrative                                                            Not recommended

    Let us know what recommended caseload sizes are for your department.

    in reply to: Dosage Concerns
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Since the research on dosage is still emerging, we, unfortunately, don’t yet have an empirical answer to this question. The lower risk level is good news for your client indeed, and we want to commend you for both keeping watch over his dosage and conducting reassessments. However, our best advice would be for your client to complete his originally assessed amount of dosage (the 200 hours) to reinforce new skills.

    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    We were recently asked whether the Carey Guides and Brief Intervention ToolS (BITS) can be used in non-justice settings. Not only CAN they be used in non-justice settings; they ARE being used in non-justice settings—for example, in social service settings and in secondary schools—to help clients build skills that would support them in leading successful lives.

    Let’s say you’re working with clients who have education or employment challenges. If you have determined that one of the reasons why a client is having education/employment challenges is because they have antisocial ways of thinking, you can use the tools in the Antisocial Thinking Guide to help them develop more prosocial ways of thinking. If anger management is an issue, the Anger Guide can help them develop strategies to manage their anger. If they are being influenced by antisocial others, the Antisocial Associates and Engaging Prosocial Others Guides or the Who I Spend Time With BITS can be used to help clients recognize who may be a negative influence, how to change or end friendships that are not healthy for them, and how to develop more prosocial relationships. If problem solving is an issue, the Problem Solving Guide and Problem Solving BITS teach five steps that clients can use when confronted with a problem. You get the picture!

    Our one caution is that some of the Guide tools (but not the BITS) do include language that is offender-specific. For example, there are references to “corrections professionals” and to “illegal behaviors.” As you review those tools with clients, you would want to modify the language—either orally or in handwriting, on the tools themselves—to suit the circumstance.

    in reply to: Substance Abuse Guide/ Tool 4
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Tool 4 in Substance Abuse, “Recovering from a Relapse,” is specifically geared to clients who have relapsed. For those who have not relapsed, it is more appropriate to use tool 3 to discuss how to prevent relapse. If you have already completed tool 3 and want to continue the work around relapse, you could possibly reword the questions in tool 4. For example, question 2 in part A could be reworded as “If you were to relapse, what event would most likely trip you up?”; question 3 could be reworded as “If you were to relapse, who would you likely be with?”; question 4 could be reworded as “If you were to relapse, would you likely have planned to use in advance?”; and so forth. You may find that many of the answers to these reworded questions are similar to those discovered in tool 3, which addresses similar issues. Repetition around key learnings can be useful. However, if the client finds this too repetitive and is not benefiting from this approach to tool 4, be prepared to stop the exercise and refocus your efforts elsewhere.

    in reply to: Dosage Concerns
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Jeremy, the research on dosage is still emerging and should be considered a target—not a hard and fast number—but, yes, we do have evidence that suggests that we see diminishing returns when high risk adults receive more than 300 hours of dosage.

    in reply to: Sequencing the Carey Guides and Driver Workbook
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Thank you for your question!

    In general, our suggestion is that, during an appointment, you work with the client on only one tool, since it will take an average of 10–20 minutes to go through it, and we suggest that you introduce another tool for the client to complete at home. In some cases, you might get through only one part of a tool during an appointment; in those instances, you can assign the other parts for completion at home or do them with the client during subsequent appointments.

    In the early stages of supervision, when you are trying to achieve multiple purposes, the assignment that you complete with the client during the appointment and the take-home assignment you give the client might be from different Carey Guides. For example, during an appointment, you might work with the client on a tool from Maximizing Strengths in order to build rapport and then, to help identify rewards that would be meaningful to the client, you might ask them to complete a tool from Rewards and Sanctions at home.

    After the initial appointments, you will be focusing on one criminogenic need at a time, as guided by the case plan. At that stage, you will be teaching skills to address the specific need, so the tools that you will be using during appointments and assigning for completion at home will usually be from the same Guide.

    I hope that is helpful.

    in reply to: Using more than one tool a session?
    DebbieSmith
    DebbieSmith
    Participant

    Thank you for your question!

    In general, our suggestion is that, during an appointment, you work with the client on only one tool, since it will take an average of 10–20 minutes to go through it, and we suggest that you introduce another tool for the client to complete at home. In some cases, you might get through only one part of a tool during an appointment; in those instances, you can assign the other parts for completion at home or do them with the client during subsequent appointments.

    In the early stages of supervision, when you are trying to achieve multiple purposes, the assignment that you complete with the client during the appointment and the take-home assignment you give the client might be from different Carey Guides. For example, during an appointment, you might work with the client on a tool from Maximizing Strengths in order to build rapport and then, to help identify rewards that would be meaningful to the client, you might ask them to complete a tool from Rewards and Sanctions at home.

    After the initial appointments, you will be focusing on one criminogenic need at a time, as guided by the case plan. At that stage, you will be teaching skills to address the specific need, so the tools that you will be using during appointments and assigning for completion at home will usually be from the same Guide.

    I hope that is helpful.

Viewing 10 posts - 1 through 10 (of 23 total)